Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Inflation in the 1970s

Inflation in the 1970s Monetary policy During inflation, the economy overheats, as the aggregate demand surpasses the level of economic growth. Thereby, the central bank plays a major role in employing the monetary policy, which encourages more saving than spending (Barsky and Lutz 18).Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Inflation in the 1970s specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The most appropriate method is increasing interest rates, where, borrowing becomes very expensive, and people resolve to save instead of borrowing and spending money recklessly. Essentially, there is an increase in the opportunity cost of spending, and homeowners with mortgage find it too expensive to service their mortgage loans. With a decrease in borrowings, the real money supply in the economy reduces significantly. Companies also find it very expensive to borrow monies from banks, thus, they end up making very few investments. Moreover, when the interest rate i s significantly high, the exchange rate increases, and the inflation pressures reduce. This reduces the demand for exports and makes imports slightly inexpensive. The situation becomes very difficult, as some businesses experience losses in some of their investment projects. The entire scenario leads to an aggregate decrease in demand, where, buyers barely have enough money to spend, and the sellers have to reduce the prices of their products to obtain customers. Monetary policy is very effective in keeping inflation under control, as long as the interest rates are high. Fiscal policy The fiscal policy targets the demand side, and its effects to the economy resemble those of the monetary policy. During inflation, the government aims at reducing the flow of money in the economy by increasing direct taxes to the citizens. This approach helps in reducing the amount of disposable income, as the citizens have to pay high taxes for every income that they earn or spend. High income taxes a nd high value added taxes play a significant role in reducing consumer spending.Advertising Looking for term paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Such a scenario aids and maintain steady budgeting, and thus, it supports economic growth in a given nation. The increased tariffs escalate the leakage rates, and the consumers are left with barely enough money to spend. Another approach of employing the fiscal policy is through the reduction of government spending in the economy. In such a case, the reduced injections into the circular flow of the economy trim down the demand, which reduces inflation, and the general growth of the economy reduces significantly. Exchange rate policy Whenever the value of a currency appreciates, the exports become expensive, where, the volume of exports reduce significantly. Moreover, the aggregate demand for exports reduces significantly, and the firms in the countr y have to reduce their prices to remain competitive in the global market. Whenever the currency in a particular nation is high, the import prices reduce significantly; therefore, firms that depend on imported raw materials experience reduced manufacturing costs. With that, the firms can sell their products at low prices, and still make profits. Income policy Direct wage control is an important aspect of fiscal policy because it sets limits of wage bill and decrease expenditure in the government. A government experiencing inflation can restrict pay rise for government employees to cut on its expenditures. Moreover, the government can go ahead and persuade private sector employers to control their wage levels. Despite the fact that low wage growth moderates inflation rate and reduces forces of inflation, it does not control inflation rate effectively. Labour market and supply side policies Reducing persistent uncompetitive markets and creation of flexible labour markets would play a g reat role in reducing inflationary pressures. The government can take part in weakening labour unions and encouraging part-time employment.Advertising We will write a custom term paper sample on Inflation in the 1970s specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although flexible labour markets lead to an increase in job insecurity, the increased flexibility in the labour markets would play a great role in helping firms to reduce their labour costs and thus reduce inflationary pressures. The lower cost per unit of production would enable firms to achieve economic growth without necessarily increasing their prices. Economic policies that controlled inflation in the 1970s The United States experienced a period of stagflation in the 1970s, where, the economic growth rate was slow and the inflation rates were considerably high. However, Milton Friedman, an American economist, believed that monetary supply was the issue affecting the economy. He ther efore insisted that the monetary policy would play a significant role in combating inflation of the 1970s. In 1979, Paul Volcker, the Federal Reserve Chairperson, employed the monetary policy, which played a great role in reducing inflation. The increment of interest rates provides a way for the government to discourage spending and borrowing. In the middle part of 1970s, the interest rates increased to about 12%, as there was an excessive growth in the economy (Biven 28). Citizens resolved to save, and the real money supply in the economy reduced significantly. Although the monetary policy was the basis of the severe 1981-1982 recession period, it played a great role in combating the inflation of the 1970s. Phillips curve and its application in the 1970s inflation Phillips curve seeks to analyse the macro-economic situation and explain the correlation between inflation levels and the unemployment levels in any given economy. Since its implementation, the Philips curve has played a great role in managing the trade cycle, where, it helps policy makers to manage aggregate demand whenever the economy encounters high unemployment rates, inflation, and severe recession periods. Essentially, the Philips curve indicated that wage inflation and unemployment levels have an inverse relationship. It is evident that changes in the levels of unemployment determine the price inflation levels in any economy. If, for example, there is an increase in the demand for labour, the unemployment levels fall, as firms raise their wages to compete for the few labourers available. During the inflation period of the 1970s, the government had to select the most appropriate rate of inflation and work towards achieving it. Friedman studied the Phillips curve carefully, and discovered that the economy consisted of a series of short run Phillips curves that explained the natural rate of unemployment.Advertising Looking for term paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The short run Phillips curves played a great role in determining the existing inflation rate. Indeed, the entire period running through 1970-1979 had three short run Phillips curves that explained the upward shift of inflation expectations during the period. While applying Milton Friedman’s monetary policy, the Phillips curve was imperative, and the economists had to contract or expand the economy accordingly to achieve the most appropriate rate of inflation (Marvin and King 993). The Phillips curve was imperative in incorporating the negative supply shocks experienced during the inflation period. Therefore, although the stagflation period presented a breakdown of the Phillips curve in the 1970s, the curve had some relevance in achieving the monetary policy that combated the great inflation. Barsky, Robert and Kilian Lutz. A Monetary Explanation of the Great Stagflation of the 1970s. Michigan: University of Michigan, 2010. Print. Biven, Carl. Jimmy Carter’s Economy: P olicy in an Age of Limits. North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 2002. Print. Marvin, Goodfriend and Robert King. The Incredible Volcker Disinflation. Journal of Monetary Economics 52.1 (2005): 981-1015. Print. Appendix 1: Phillips curve shifts, 1970-1979

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Photon Definition

Photon Definition Photon Definition: A photon is a discrete packet of energy associated with electromagnetic radiation (light). A photon has energy E which is proportional to the frequency ÃŽ ½ of the radiation: E hÃŽ ½, where h is Plancks constant. Also Known As: quantum, quanta (plural) Characteristics Photons are unique in that they have characteristics of both particles and waves at the same time. For students, it remains unclear as to whether a photon is a particle that travels in a wave pattern or a wave broken up into particles. Most scientists simply accept the photon as a unique packet of energy that has characteristics of both waves and particles. Properties of a Photon Behaves like a particle and a wave, simultaneouslyMoves at a constant  velocity,  c   2.9979 x 108  m/s (i.e. the speed of light), in empty spaceHas zero mass and rest energyCarries energy and momentum, which are also related to the frequency (nu)  and wavelength  (lamdba)  of the electromagnetic wave, as expressed by the equation  E  Ã‚  h nu  and  p  Ã‚  h  /  lambda.Can be destroyed/created when radiation is absorbed/emitted.Can have particle-like interactions (i.e. collisions) with electrons and other particles, such as in the  Compton effect  in which particles of light collide with atoms, causing the release of electrons.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

FDA Approval Procedure Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

FDA Approval Procedure - Assignment Example From this paper it is clear that pre-clinical studies must showcase that the medication will not induce chromosomal damage when consumed in potentially effective doses. The results are filed to the FDA together with the IND (Investigational New Drug) application. Apart from the pre-clinical studies report, the IND application contains the information on pharmacologic properties, the proposal for clinical investigations, and clarification of safety measures for prospective volunteers.This essay discusses that after a drug has survived all the trials, an NDA (New Drug Application) is forwarded to the FDA. According to the 1992 Prescription Drug User Fee Act, standard applications are to be reviewed within the 12-month timeframe. Results on priority applications are usually released within six months. Sometimes, FDA may request to provide minor corrections or labeling adjustments. As soon as the product receives the FDA approval, it is allowed for sail. In case of rejection, the FDA pre sents the reasoning together with a list of recommendations. Certain approvals are given under the condition that further research must be conducted shortly after the initial marketing. For instance, the manufacturer may be requested to assess risks in patients with specific illnesses or to examine the long-term effects.  To conclude, drug approval is a lengthy and costly process that is strictly regulated by the FDA.

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Presidential Election of 1796 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Presidential Election of 1796 - Essay Example The knowledge that his ideals were ultimately the hopes of colonists is astounding. It is a man such as this that the colonists needed. His courage is demonstrated by his break from the ultra federalist party and his meteoric rise to be the leader of this country. Further, his diplomatic efforts in France and his intimate workings with Franklin demonstrated his ability to work with all men. Especially during those times, diplomacy was crucial. Additionally he rose through the ranks as Vice President which ultimately gave him much needed experience that I as a voter would require. It is because of his experience that I would have voted for Adams over Jefferson. Remember, during those times, it was not so much education that mattered but rather an ability to lead. Adams demonstrated that he had leadership ability by being a founding father, breaking from the ultra federalist party and being vice president. It is for these reasons that I would have voted for Adams over Jefferson.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

The temperature of these in order to get my results Essay Example for Free

The temperature of these in order to get my results Essay In this investigation I will be using CaCO3 in the form of marble chips, and will be reacting these chips with hydrochloric acid. The equation for this is below. Aim: I am trying to investigate whether or not temperature affects the rate of reaction in an experiment. The experiment which I am doing is how temperature affects the rate of gas being given off when Hydrochloric Acid is added to Calcium Carbonate in the form of marble chips. 2HCL(aq) + CaCO3(s) ? H2O (l)+ CO2(g) + CaCl2(aq) Pre-experimentation Procedures, Assessments, and Predictions. Before starting the experiments, I needed to do my risk assessment, find out some things about the chemicals I was going to be using, and make sure that I was fully prepared to do this task safely and efficiently. Hazards: Procedures: Acid Corrosive, can spit when hot Wear safety goggles at all times. Bunsen Burner Exposed flames Do not leave hair untied or let loose clothing flap The Collision Theory I predict that the hotter the acid is, then the faster the rate of reaction will be. I can back this prediction up by stating the Collision Theory, and the Maxwell Boltzmann Distribution theory. When two chemicals react, their molecules have to collide with each other with sufficient energy for the reaction to take place. This is collision theory. The two molecules will only react if they have enough energy. By heating the mixture, you will raise the energy levels of the molecules involved in the reaction. Increasing temperature means the molecules move faster. This is kinetic theory. Preliminary Work and Experiments. In the preliminary work, I was aiming to deduce what the amounts of each chemical should be. I conducted some results using more or less calcium carbonate and each time I took readings every 5 seconds in order to determine how quickly the gas was being given off. I always added the marble chips to 20cm3 of Hydrochloric Acid. To begin with, I used 1. 5 grams of calcium carbonate, and conducted the experiment at room temperature. The experiment was over in 40 seconds, which is too quick. I then tried 1g of marble chips, which took 75 seconds to complete, which is better, yet still too slow. The next day, I decided to try the experiment with 1. 25g. This should have been somewhere between the two speeds of the others, but unfortunately the room temperature was several degrees higher than the day before, and therefore it actually accelerated the experiment. Although this was a setback to getting some useable results, it did show me that because the temperature was higher, the experiment was faster; therefore it was very useful for this experiment. To make sure I had a fair test, I had to do a control. This was at room temperature, whatever that was on the day. Then, I would vary the temperature to see my results. I am going to see how fast the CO2 is given off when I vary the amount of marble chips, therefore I can get the right amount for when I do the full experiment. I set up the apparatus, as shown below, and began the experiment. Here are my first results, please note that the 1. 25g section in italics was the set of results on the hotter day. Amount of gas given off (cm3) Time (s) 1I am going to use temperature as my variable, these experiments were very useful at indicating that my prediction was right. They showed that on the hotter day, even though it had less reactant, the 1. 25g experiment was faster than the 1. 5g one. They also showed that the cold experiment took the longest to complete, which concurs with my prediction. Plan When I do the experiment, I am going to use 1. 25g of calcium carbonate, and 20cm3of Hydrochloric Acid as fixed amounts; I will then vary the temperature of these in order to get my results. To keep the temperature the same both times, and in order to vary it, I will be using an ice bath to keep it cool, and a hot water bath to keep it warm. The calcium carbonate will be measured on a set of sensitive digital scales and the acid will be measured in a measuring cylinder for maximum accuracy.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Ancient Babylon :: essays research papers

The code of Hammurabi was one of the most important documents in Babylon history. It was adopted from many Sumerian customs that had been around for a while before the Babylonians. Though many of the Laws were adopted from Sumeria they were published by Hammurabi and thus known as the code of Hammurabi. This code had four main parts to it. They were: Civil Laws, Commercial Laws, Penal Laws, and the Law of procedures. The Civil Law was an important one to the people. It set up a social class system based on a hierarchy based on wealth. The Babylonians had three classes according to the code. They were the freeman or wealthy people, the semi- freeman who were able to become slaves at any time, and the slaves who were of course the lowest class. The next section in the code was the Commercial Law. This had to do with business transactions and most things relating to business. It set up 20% interest rates. There was a political economy based on economic status. The wealthy classes were the creditors and the poorer class was the debtors. After the Commercial Law came the Penal Law. This had to do with the issue of crime. The laws were unusually harsh do to their ineducation. Despite this the wealthy class usually enjoyed more freedom from the law than the lower classes. There was no jury in the court back in the times of Babylon. The code of Hammurabi was like an eye for an eye punishment. If you killed someone than you would be killed. The last law was the Law of Procedures. This dealt with the way all of the other laws were carried out. It also had to do with the way ceremonies were carried out. These ceremonies could include marriage and other religious ceremony. The first group of people to take over the Mesopotamia region was the Akkadians. They took over around 200 BC and they were lead by their leader Sargon the Great. Sargon was not a good leader and Akkad the empire they built was not organized at all. It had no society and no civilization. Soon after the Akkadians came the Amorites. They were also known as the old Babylonians. They built the city of Babylon and made it one of the biggest trade centers in the Middle East. Hammurabi was the King of the Amorites and was famous for the code of Hammurabi. Ancient Babylon :: essays research papers The code of Hammurabi was one of the most important documents in Babylon history. It was adopted from many Sumerian customs that had been around for a while before the Babylonians. Though many of the Laws were adopted from Sumeria they were published by Hammurabi and thus known as the code of Hammurabi. This code had four main parts to it. They were: Civil Laws, Commercial Laws, Penal Laws, and the Law of procedures. The Civil Law was an important one to the people. It set up a social class system based on a hierarchy based on wealth. The Babylonians had three classes according to the code. They were the freeman or wealthy people, the semi- freeman who were able to become slaves at any time, and the slaves who were of course the lowest class. The next section in the code was the Commercial Law. This had to do with business transactions and most things relating to business. It set up 20% interest rates. There was a political economy based on economic status. The wealthy classes were the creditors and the poorer class was the debtors. After the Commercial Law came the Penal Law. This had to do with the issue of crime. The laws were unusually harsh do to their ineducation. Despite this the wealthy class usually enjoyed more freedom from the law than the lower classes. There was no jury in the court back in the times of Babylon. The code of Hammurabi was like an eye for an eye punishment. If you killed someone than you would be killed. The last law was the Law of Procedures. This dealt with the way all of the other laws were carried out. It also had to do with the way ceremonies were carried out. These ceremonies could include marriage and other religious ceremony. The first group of people to take over the Mesopotamia region was the Akkadians. They took over around 200 BC and they were lead by their leader Sargon the Great. Sargon was not a good leader and Akkad the empire they built was not organized at all. It had no society and no civilization. Soon after the Akkadians came the Amorites. They were also known as the old Babylonians. They built the city of Babylon and made it one of the biggest trade centers in the Middle East. Hammurabi was the King of the Amorites and was famous for the code of Hammurabi.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

The Host Chapter 21: Named

I kept tight to Jeb's side, a little in front of him. I wanted to be as far as possible from the two men following us. Jamie walked somewhere in the middle, not sure of where he wanted to be. I wasn't able to concentrate much on the rest of Jeb's tour. My attention was not focused on the second set of gardens he led me through-one with corn growing waist-high in the blistering heat of the brilliant mirrors-or the wide but low-ceilinged cavern he called the â€Å"rec room.† That one was pitch-black and deep underground, but he told me they brought in lights when they wanted to play. The word play didn't make sense to me, not here in this group of tense, angry survivors, but I didn't ask him to explain. There was more water here, a tiny, noxiously sulfurous spring that Jeb said they sometimes used as a second latrine because it was no good for drinking. My attention was divided between the men walking behind us and the boy at my side. Ian and the doctor did mind their manners surprisingly well. No one attacked me from behind-though I thought my eyes might get lodged in the back of my head from trying to see if they were about to. They just followed quietly, sometimes talking to each other in low voices. Their comments revolved around names I didn't know and nicknames for places and things that might or might not have been inside these caves. I couldn't understand any of it. Jamie said nothing, but he looked at me a lot. When I wasn't trying to keep an eye on the others, I was often peeking at him, too. This left little time to admire the things Jeb showed me, but he didn't seem to notice my preoccupations. Some of the tunnels were very long-the distances hidden beneath the ground here were mind-boggling. Often they were pitch-black, but Jeb and the others never so much as paused, clearly familiar with their whereabouts and long since accustomed to traveling in darkness. It was harder for me than it was when Jeb and I were alone. In the dark, every noise sounded like an attack. Even the doctor's and Ian's casual chatter seemed like a cover for some nefarious move. Paranoid, Melanie commented. If that's what it takes to keep us alive, so be it. I wish you would pay more attention to Uncle Jeb. This is fascinating. Do what you want with your time. I can only hear and see what you hear and see, Wanderer, she told me. Then she changed the subject. Jamie looks okay, don't you think? Not too unhappy. He looks†¦ wary. We were just coming into some light after the longest trek so far in the humid blackness. â€Å"This here is the southernmost spur of the tube system,† Jeb explained as we walked. â€Å"Not super convenient, but it gets good light all day long. That's why we made it the hospital wing. This is where Doc does his thing.† The moment Jeb announced where we were, my body froze and my joints locked; I skidded to a halt, my feet planted against the rock floor. My eyes, wide with terror, flickered between Jeb's face and the face of the doctor. Had this all been a ruse, then? Wait for stubborn Jared to be out of the picture and then lure me back here? I couldn't believe I'd walked to this place under my own power. How stupid I was! Melanie was just as aghast. We might as well have gift-wrapped ourselves for them! They stared back at me, Jeb expressionless, the doctor looking as surprised as I felt-though not as horrified. I would have flinched, ripped myself away from the touch of a hand on my arm, if the hand had not been so familiar. â€Å"No,† Jamie said, his hand hesitantly resting just below my elbow. â€Å"No, it's okay. Really. Right, Uncle Jeb?† Jamie looked trustingly at the old man. â€Å"It's okay, right?† â€Å"Sure it is.† Jeb's faded blue eyes were calm and clear. â€Å"Just showing you my place, kid, that's all.† â€Å"What are you talking about?† Ian grumbled from behind us, sounding annoyed that he didn't understand. â€Å"Did you think we brought you here on purpose, for Doc?† Jamie said to me instead of answering Ian. â€Å"Because we wouldn't do that. We promised Jared.† I stared at his earnest face, trying to believe. â€Å"Oh!† Ian said as he understood, and then he laughed. â€Å"That wasn't a bad plan. I'm surprised I didn't think of it.† Jamie scowled at the big man and patted my arm before removing his hand. â€Å"Don't be scared,† he said. Jeb took up where he'd left off. â€Å"So this big room here is fitted up with a few cots in case anyone gets sick or hurt. We've been pretty lucky on that count. Doc doesn't have much to work with in an emergency.† Jeb grinned at me. â€Å"Your folks threw out all our medicines when they took over things. Hard to get our hands on what we need.† I nodded slightly; the movement was absentminded. I was still reeling, trying to get my bearings. This room looked innocent enough, as if it were only used for healing, but it made my stomach twist and contract. â€Å"What do you know about alien medicine?† the doctor asked suddenly, his head cocked to the side. He watched my face with expectant curiosity. I stared at him wordlessly. â€Å"Oh, you can talk to Doc,† Jeb encouraged me. â€Å"He's a pretty decent guy, all things considered.† I shook my head once. I meant to answer the doctor's question, to tell them that I knew nothing, but they misunderstood. â€Å"She's not giving away any trade secrets,† Ian said sourly. â€Å"Are you, sweetheart?† â€Å"Manners, Ian,† Jeb barked. â€Å"Is it a secret?† Jamie asked, guarded but clearly curious. I shook my head again. They all stared at me in confusion. Doc shook his head, too, slowly, baffled. I took a deep breath, then whispered, â€Å"I'm not a Healer. I don't know how they-the medications-work. Only that they do work- they heal, rather than merely treating symptoms. No trial and error. Of course the human medicines were discarded.† All four of them stared with blank expressions. First they were surprised when I didn't answer, and now they were surprised when I did. Humans were impossible to please. â€Å"Your kind didn't change too much of what we left behind,† Jeb said thoughtfully after a moment. â€Å"Just the medical stuff, and the spaceships instead of planes. Other than that, life seems to go on just the same as ever†¦ on the surface.† â€Å"We come to experience, not to change,† I whispered. â€Å"Health takes priority over that philosophy, though.† I shut my mouth with an audible snap. I had to be more careful. The humans hardly wanted a lecture on soul philosophy. Who knew what would anger them? Or what would snap their fragile patience? Jeb nodded, still thoughtful, and then ushered us onward. He wasn't as enthusiastic as he continued my tour through the few connecting caves here in the medical wing, not as involved in the presentation. When we turned around and headed back into the black corridor, he lapsed into silence. It was a long, quiet walk. I thought through what I'd said, looking for something that might have offended. Jeb was too strange for me to guess if that was the case. The other humans, hostile and suspicious as they were, at least made sense. How could I hope to make sense of Jeb? The tour ended abruptly when we reentered the huge garden cavern where the carrot sprouts made a bright green carpet across the dark floor. â€Å"Show's over,† Jeb said gruffly, looking at Ian and the doctor. â€Å"Go do something useful.† Ian rolled his eyes at the doctor, but they both turned good-naturedly enough and made their way toward the biggest exit-the one that led to the kitchen, I remembered. Jamie hesitated, looking after them but not moving. â€Å"You come with me,† Jeb told him, slightly less gruff this time. â€Å"I've got a job for you.† â€Å"Okay,† Jamie said. I could see that he was pleased to have been chosen. Jamie walked beside me again as we headed back toward the sleeping-quarters section of the caves. I was surprised, as we chose the third passageway from the left, that Jamie seemed to know exactly where we were going. Jeb was slightly behind us, but Jamie stopped at once when we reached the green screen that covered the seventh apartment. He moved the screen aside for me but stayed in the hall. â€Å"You okay to sit tight for a while?† Jeb asked me. I nodded, grateful at the thought of hiding again. I ducked through the opening and then stood a few feet in, not sure what to do with myself. Melanie remembered that there were books here, but I reminded her of my vow to not touch anything. â€Å"I got things to do, kid,† Jeb said to Jamie. â€Å"Food ain't gonna fix itself, you know. You up to guard duty?† â€Å"Sure,† Jamie said with a bright smile. His thin chest swelled with a deep breath. My eyes widened in disbelief as I watched Jeb place the rifle in Jamie's eager hands. â€Å"Are you crazy?† I shouted. My voice was so loud that I didn't recognize it at first. It felt like I'd been whispering forever. Jeb and Jamie looked up at me, shocked. I was out in the hallway with them in a second. I almost reached for the hard metal of the barrel, almost ripped it from the boy's hands. What stopped me wasn't the knowledge that a move like that would surely get me killed. What stopped me was the fact that I was weaker than the humans in this way; even to save the boy, I could not make myself touch the weapon. I turned on Jeb instead. â€Å"What are you thinking? Giving the weapon to a child? He could kill himself!† â€Å"Jamie's been through enough to be called a man, I think. He knows how to handle himself around a gun.† Jamie's shoulders straightened at Jeb's praise, and he gripped the gun tighter to his chest. I gaped at Jeb's stupidity. â€Å"What if they come for me with him here? Did you think of what could happen? This isn't a joke! They'll hurt him to get to me!† Jeb remained calm, his face placid. â€Å"Don't think there'll be any trouble today. I'd bet on it.† â€Å"Well, I wouldn't!† I was yelling again. My voice echoed off the tunnel walls-someone was sure to hear, but I didn't care. Better they come while Jeb was still here. â€Å"If you're so sure, then leave me here alone. Let what happens happen. But don't put Jamie in danger!† â€Å"Is it the kid you're worried about, or are you just afraid that he'll turn the gun on you?† Jeb asked, his voice almost languid. I blinked, my anger derailed. That thought had not even occurred to me. I glanced blankly at Jamie, met his surprised gaze, and saw that the idea was shocking to him, too. It took me a minute to recover my side of the argument, and by the time I did, Jeb's expression had changed. His eyes were intent, his mouth pursed-as if he were about to fit the last piece into a frustrating puzzle. â€Å"Give the gun to Ian or any of the others. I don't care,† I said, my voice slow and even. â€Å"Just leave the boy out of this.† Jeb's sudden face-wide grin reminded me, strangely, of a pouncing cat. â€Å"It's my house, kid, and I'll do what I want. I always do.† Jeb turned his back and ambled away down the hall, whistling as he went. I watched him go, my mouth hanging open. When he disappeared, I turned to Jamie, who was watching me with a sullen expression. â€Å"I'm not a child,† he muttered in a deeper tone than usual, his chin jutting out belligerently. â€Å"Now, you should†¦ you should go in your room.† The order was less than severe, but there was nothing else I could do. I'd lost this disagreement by a large margin. I sat down with my back against the rock that formed one side of the cave opening-the side where I could hide behind the half-opened screen but still watch Jamie. I wrapped my arms around my legs and began doing what I knew I would be doing as long as this insane situation continued: I worried. I also strained my eyes and ears for some sound of approach, to be ready. No matter what Jeb said, I would prevent anyone from challenging Jamie's guard. I would give myself up before they asked. Yes, Melanie agreed succinctly. Jamie stood in the hallway for a few minutes, the gun tight in his hands, unsure as to how to do his job. He started pacing after that, back and forth in front of the screen, but he seemed to feel silly after a couple of passes. Then he sat down on the floor beside the open end of the screen. The gun eventually settled on his folded legs, and his chin into his cupped hands. After a long time, he sighed. Guard duty was not as exciting as he'd been expecting. I did not get bored watching him. After maybe an hour or two, he started looking at me again, flickering glances. His lips opened a few times, and then he thought better of whatever he was going to say. I laid my chin on my knees and waited as he struggled. My patience was rewarded. â€Å"That planet you were coming from before you were in Melanie,† he finally said. â€Å"What was it like there? Was it like here?† The direction of his thoughts caught me off guard. â€Å"No,† I said. With only Jamie here, it felt right to speak normally instead of whispering. â€Å"No, it was very different.† â€Å"Will you tell me what it was like?† he asked, cocking his head to one side the way he used to when he was really interested in one of Melanie's bedtime stories. So I told him. I told him all about the See Weeds' waterlogged planet. I told him about the two suns, the elliptical orbit, the gray waters, the unmoving permanence of roots, the stunning vistas of a thousand eyes, the endless conversations of a million soundless voices that all could hear. He listened with wide eyes and a fascinated smile. â€Å"Is that the only other place?† he asked when I fell silent, trying to think of anything I'd missed. â€Å"Are the See Weeds†-he laughed once at the pun-â€Å"the only other aliens?† I laughed, too. â€Å"Hardly. No more than I'm the only alien on this world.† â€Å"Tell me.† So I told him about the Bats on the Singing World-how it was to live in musical blindness, how it was to fly. I told him about the Mists Planet-how it felt to have thick white fur and four hearts to keep warm, how to give claw beasts a wide berth. I started to tell him about the Planet of the Flowers, about the color and the light, but he interrupted me with a new question. â€Å"What about the little green guys with the triangle heads and the big black eyes? The ones who crashed in Roswell and all that. Was that you guys?† â€Å"Nope, not us.† â€Å"Was it all fake?† â€Å"I don't know-maybe, maybe not. It's a big universe, and there's a lot of company out there.† â€Å"How did you come here, then-if you weren't the little green guys, who were you? You had to have bodies to move and stuff, right?† â€Å"Right,† I agreed, surprised at his grasp of the facts at hand. I shouldn't have been surprised-I knew how bright he was, his mind like a thirsty sponge. â€Å"We used our Spider selves in the very beginning, to get things started.† â€Å"Spiders?† I told him about the Spiders-a fascinating species. Brilliant, the most incredible minds we'd ever come across, and each Spider had three of them. Three brains, one in each section of their segmented bodies. We'd yet to find a problem they couldn't solve for us. And yet they were so coldly analytical that they rarely came up with a problem they were curious enough to solve for themselves. Of all our hosts, the Spiders welcomed our occupation the most. They barely noticed the difference, and when they did, they seemed to appreciate the direction we provided. The few souls who had walked on the surface of the Spiders' planet before implantation told us that it was cold and gray-no wonder the Spiders only saw in black and white and had a limited sense of temperature. The Spiders lived short lives, but the young were born knowing everything their parent had, so no knowledge was lost. I'd lived out one of the short life terms of the species and then left with no desire to return. The amazing clarity of my thoughts, the easy answers that came to any question almost without effort, the march and dance of numbers were no substitute for emotion and color, which I could only vaguely understand when inside that body. I wondered how any soul could be content there, but the planet had been self-sufficient for thousands of Earth years. It was still open for settling only because the Spiders reproduced so quickly-great sacs of eggs. I started to tell Jamie how the offensive had been launched here. The Spiders were our best engineers-the ships they made for us danced nimbly and undetectably through the stars. The Spiders' bodies were almost as useful as their minds: four long legs to each segment-from which they'd earned their nickname on this planet-and twelve-fingered hands on each leg. These six-jointed fingers were as slender and strong as steel threads, capable of the most delicate procedures. About the mass of a cow, but short and lean, the Spiders had no trouble with the first insertions. They were stronger than humans, smarter than humans, and prepared, which the humans were not†¦ I stopped short, midsentence, when I saw the crystalline sparkle on Jamie's cheek. He was staring straight ahead at nothing, his lips pressed in a tight line. A large drop of salt water rolled slowly down the cheek closest to me. Idiot, Melanie chastised me. Didn't you think what your story would mean to him? Didn't you think of warning me sooner? She didn't answer. No doubt she'd been as caught up in the storytelling as I was. â€Å"Jamie,† I murmured. My voice was thick. The sight of his tear had done strange things to my throat. â€Å"Jamie, I'm so sorry. I wasn't thinking.† Jamie shook his head. â€Å"‘S okay. I asked. I wanted to know how it happened.† His voice was gruff, trying to hide the pain. It was instinctive, the desire to lean forward and wipe that tear away. I tried at first to ignore it; I was not Melanie. But the tear hung there, motionless, as if it would never fall. Jamie's eyes stayed fixed on the blank wall, and his lips trembled. He wasn't far from me. I stretched my arm out to brush my fingers against his cheek; the tear spread thin across his skin and disappeared. Acting on instinct again, I left my hand against his warm cheek, cradling his face. For a short second, he pretended to ignore me. Then he rolled toward me, his eyes closed, his hands reaching. He curled into my side, his cheek against the hollow of my shoulder, where it had once fit better, and sobbed. These were not the tears of a child, and that made them more profound-made it more sacred and painful that he would cry them in front of me. This was the grief of a man at the funeral for his entire family. My arms wound around him, not fitting as easily as they used to, and I cried, too. â€Å"I'm sorry,† I said again and again. I apologized for everything in those two words. That we'd ever found this place. That we'd chosen it. That I'd been the one to take his sister. That I'd brought her back here and hurt him again. That I'd made him cry today with my insensitive stories. I didn't drop my arms when his anguish quieted; I was in no hurry to let him go. It seemed as though my body had been starving for this from the beginning, but I'd never understood before now what would feed the hunger. The mysterious bond of mother and child-so strong on this planet-was not a mystery to me any longer. There was no bond greater than one that required your life for another's. I'd understood this truth before; what I had not understood was why. Now I knew why a mother would give her life for her child, and this knowledge would forever shape the way I saw the universe. â€Å"I know I've taught you better than that, kid.† We jumped apart. Jamie lurched to his feet, but I curled closer to the ground, cringing into the wall. Jeb leaned down and picked up the gun we'd both forgotten from the floor. â€Å"You've got to mind a gun better than this, Jamie.† His tone was very gentle-it softened the criticism. He reached out to tousle Jamie's shaggy hair. Jamie ducked under Jeb's hand, his face scarlet with mortification. â€Å"Sorry,† he muttered, and turned as if to flee. He stopped after just a step, though, and swiveled back to look at me. â€Å"I don't know your name,† he said. â€Å"They called me Wanderer,† I whispered. â€Å"Wanderer?† I nodded. He nodded, too, then hurried away. The back of his neck was still red. When he was gone, Jeb leaned against the rock and slid down till he was seated where Jamie had been. Like Jamie, he kept the gun cradled in his lap. â€Å"That's a real interesting name you've got there,† he told me. He seemed to be back to his chatty mood. â€Å"Maybe sometime you'll tell me how you got it. Bet that's a good story. But it's kind of a mouthful, don't you think? Wanderer?† I stared at him. â€Å"Mind if I call you Wanda, for short? It flows easier.† He waited this time for a response. Finally, I shrugged. It didn't matter to me whether he called me â€Å"kid† or some strange human nickname. I believed it was meant kindly. â€Å"Okay, then, Wanda.† He smiled, pleased at his invention. â€Å"It's nice to have a handle on you. Makes me feel like we're old friends.† He grinned that huge, cheek-stretching grin, and I couldn't help grinning back, though my smile was more rueful than delighted. He was supposed to be my enemy. He was probably insane. And he was my friend. Not that he wouldn't kill me if things turned out that way, but he wouldn't like doing it. With humans, what more could you ask of a friend?

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Employment Agency Essay

Founding a particular organization requires a definite goal and utilities in order to achieve that objective. And since organizations need to have reliable staff and people who will function as the primary facilitator to execute the goals, then employing a group of credible individuals will benefit the organization. An agency can easily find the right people to fill different job positions of companies (Wikipedia, 2007). Apparently, one of the most common ways for an organization or office to recruit personnel for its different department operations is by coordinating with employment agencies. It really does not matter whether the agency is a non-profit, public or private type. As long as an employment outfit is able to render its services to an organization by sustaining its needs, then most probably a bureau will tend to request for assistance from an employment agency of choice. A person may ask, why would an organization utilize employment agencies instead of using its assets to hire laborers? The first possible reason may come from the aspect of cost efficiency. Primarily, organizations seek the help of these labor agencies because of the relative convenience the process can provide. Since agencies have a complete database of applicants for different fields, the organization will never undergo the process of coming up with an advertisement operation to gather qualified individuals. This will save the company a huge amount of money in terms of logistics. One more reason in using an employment agency is that an organization will be relieved from the responsibility of sustaining the needs of an employee in terms of labor welfare and rights. The agency can conduct all the necessary processes in order to help the organization provide the important aspects of employing people for its operations. Matters such as insurance benefits, social security membership and other labor related remunerations can be shouldered by the agency with minimal fees. Using the functions of an employment agency can greatly speed up the process of hiring for a company’s needs. Basically, the compatibility of the organization’s demands and the agency’s service will prove to be of great advantage for both parties.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Buddhism Animal Ethics

Buddhism Animal Ethics Buddhism is a religion that has its origins in the beliefs of Prince Siddhartha Gautama. Prince Gautama’s sole purpose was to seek spiritual enlightenment by denouncing his enviable social standing. Eventually, Buddhism spread to Asia.Advertising We will write a custom article sample on Buddhism Animal Ethics specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, Buddhist teachings later separated into various factions although most fundamental principles remained the same. Buddhism has since spread from its original confines in Asia to the rest of the world. Buddhist teachings touch on several aspects of daily life including nature, morality, ethics, and spirituality. One of the most prominent teachings on Buddhism covers human beings’ treatment of animals. Followers of Buddhism adhere to a strict code of ethics when it comes to the treatment of animals. Most vegetarians around the world lean on these teachings when supporting their beliefs and practices. Buddhist beliefs about animal ethics elicit several concerns including their impacts on the environment and health. This paper discusses the Buddhist teachings on animal ethics and their relation to the health system. The Buddhist religion holds animals in high regard and considers them to be ‘sentient beings’. However, the most prominent animal-based belief in Buddhism comes from the fact that the religion teaches that â€Å"human beings can be reborn as animals and animals can be reborn as human beings† (Buswell 1990). Consequently, many Buddhists consider most animals to be their distant relatives who were reborn as animals. Consequently, because animals are people who have been reborn thus, it is difficult to distinguish between the ethics that apply to animals and those that apply to human beings. On the other hand, Buddhism articulates that human beings and animals were part of a single family and issues of superiority should not fea ture between them. In early Buddhism, women and animals could not achieve Buddhahood.Advertising Looking for article on religion theology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, â€Å"the achievement of Buddhahood by Lotus Sutra the daughter of Dragon King lifted restrictions against women and animals† (Buswell 1990). In the five precepts of Buddhism, the killing of human beings is prohibited. However, a more comprehensive interpretation of this precept reveals that the prohibition of murder applies to all sentient beings. Under Buddhism, animals are sentient beings and thus should not be killed by human beings (Williams 2007). The belief against killing animals ushers in the concept of vegetarianism in Buddhism. Buddhists abide to a non-harm attitude against animals and this includes indirect harm. Not all Buddhist adherents are vegetarians but a sizeable portion of this group adheres to this practice. Ano ther prominent belief in Buddhism is the practice of releasing animals into the world. Most Buddhists in East Asia engage in the practice of demonstrating â€Å"Buddhist pity by releasing animals to their natural environment† (Debien 2005). The practice of animal release is fairly common in both China and Tibet. The release of domesticated birds, fish, and other animals is one of the most controversial Buddhist teachings because the practice has been found to have negative effects on bio-diversity and the environment at large. Buddhist teachings on animal ethics have direct or indirect impacts on the health system. The first health concern comes from the Buddhist tradition of vegetarianism. Previously, vegetarianism was thought to have adverse effects on the health of individuals. However, health professionals have since found that vegetarianism tends to have more benefits than shortcomings. A few decades ago, most people were of the view that abstaining from meat and its rel ated products led to nutritional deficiency.Advertising We will write a custom article sample on Buddhism Animal Ethics specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Nevertheless, modern science indicates that â€Å"individuals who practice vegetarianism are likely to have lower cholesterol levels, lower body mass index, less incidences of hypertension, and lower blood pressure† (Williams 2007). The Buddhist practice of releasing animals into their natural environment has several impacts on the eco system. For instance, releasing animals into the world can introduce new elements into an unfamiliar environment. When invasive animals are introduced into the environment, they have detrimental effects on the eco-system. Some animals are carriers of disease causing pathogens and releasing them into an unfamiliar environment might facilitate the spread of diseases. A portion of Buddhist adherents captures animals with the sole intention of relea sing them later. Handling wild animals can lead to the spread of diseases. Buddhist teachings on animal ethics have an impact on tissue and organ transplantation. Buddhist factions have contradicting teachings on the issue of organ donations. Some Buddhists believe that it is in their best interest to donate organs in order to alleviate suffering. The belief that organ donation alleviates suffering is in line with Buddhist teachings on compassion. Another Buddhist faction believes that when a person dies, he/she retains his/her ‘sentient being’ for some time. Consequently, some Buddhists will be against organ harvesting/donation immediately after death. Consequently, by the time the body has lost its ‘sentient ‘being’ it will be too late to donate organs. Buddhism is one of the most dominant religions in the world. Buddhism teaches about several aspects of animal ethics. Some of these ethics affect both followers and non-followers of Buddhism. Buddhis ts believe in several practices that are meant to honor the integrity of the animals.Advertising Looking for article on religion theology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More References Buswell R 1990, Chinese Buddhist Aprcrypha, University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu. Debien, N 2005, Animal liberation Buddhist style, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Sydney. Williams, D 2007, Animal liberation, death, and the state: Rites to release animals in  Medieval Japan, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Funny Quotes for Your Christmas Celebration

Funny Quotes for Your Christmas Celebration Want to make witty remarks this Christmas? Ogden Nash, Dave Barry, Charles Dickens, and many other authors share their Christmas humor with you on this page. Peter Dickinson The threat of Christmas hung in the air, visible already in the fretful look of passersby as they readied themselves for the meaningless but necessary rites of false jovialities and ill-considered gifts. Max Lucado, God Came Near Were it not for the shepherds, there would have been no reception. And were it not for a group of stargazers, there would have been no gifts. Once again we find ourselves enmeshed in the Holiday Season, that very special time of year when we join with our loved ones in sharing centuries-old traditions such as trying to find a parking space at the mall. We traditionally do this in my family by driving around the parking lot until we see a shopper emerge from the mall, then we follow her, in very much the same spirit as the Three Wise Men, who 2,000 years ago followed a star, week after week, until it led them to a parking space. Ogden Nash People cant concentrate properly on blowing other people to pieces if their minds are poisoned by thoughts suitable to the twenty-fifth of December. Katharine Whitehorn, Roundabout From a commercial point of view, if Christmas did not exist it would be necessary to invent it. Frank McKinney Hubbard ​Next to a circus there aint nothing that packs up and tears out faster than the Christmas spirit. Bill Waterson, Calvin Hobbes Oh look, yet another Christmas TV special! How touching to have the meaning of Christmas brought to us by cola, fast food, and beer... Whod have ever guessed that product consumption, popular entertainment, and spirituality would mix so harmoniously? Dave Barry, Christmas Shopping In the old days, it was not called the Holiday Season; the Christians called it Christmas and went to church; the Jews called it Hanukkah and went to synagogue; the atheists went to parties and drank. People passing each other on the street would say Merry Christmas! or Happy Hanukkah! or (to the atheists) Look out for the wall! W. J. Cameron There has been only one Christmas the rest are anniversaries. Charles Dickens, A Christmas Carol Out upon merry Christmas! Whats Christmas time to you but a time for paying bills without money; a time for finding yourself a year older, but not an hour richer...? If I could work my will, said Scrooge indignantly, every idiot who goes about with Merry Christmas upon his lips should be boiled with his won pudding, and buried with a stake of holly through his heart. He should!

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Marketing- Buisness Memo Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Marketing- Buisness Memo - Essay Example First, I plan to look at the internal operation of Polo. This will mean looking at the company’s current performance both qualitatively and quantitatively. It will also be important to look at the mission and vision of the business organization together with the goals and objectives that it wants to achieve in the short-run and the long-run. After identifying the goals, the marketing strategy employed by Polo will be examined. The analysis will first focus on the target market of the company. The profile of the target market will be created and examined. This will be followed by in-depth examination of how it uses the four Ps (product, promotion, price, and place). In this section, I also plan to tackle if the four Ps complement each other and if it is deemed appropriate with the target market. Customers need and preferences will also be identified. Recognizing that the primary driver of the strategies and tactics of a business organization are the trends and developments in the business environment, the analysis will also devote a section on how the current marketing environment is changing. First, the general environment will be surveyed through the use of the PESTLE analysis which takes into account the political, economic, social, technological, environmental, and legal factors which can affect Polo in the short run and long run. The different stakeholders in the environment will also be examined by employing the Porter’s Five Forces Model. I plan to examine the barriers to entry in the industry, the level of competition, the buyer of customer, the leverage of supplier, and the threat of other substitutes. In forming recommendations for Polo, it is deemed very important to look at what other players in the industry are doing. This will enable the company to know its current position, its major rivals, as well as its competitive advantages and disadvantages relative to them. The analysis will also look at the

Friday, November 1, 2019

The Act of Union Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

The Act of Union - Essay Example In eastern and Central Europe, many new nations were formed during the twentieth century and they ended up disregarding requirements in the Union agreements based upon relinquishing territorial membership.1 In 1707, the Act of Union was created so as to bind Scotland with the other nations constituting the United Kingdom. A number of other amendments were made to the Union with the first one being in 1801. Other Acts were also created to further specify the issues in the Act of Union and these included the Parliament Act, the people's Acts, the Scotland Act etc. In the Act of Union., Scotland is still recognised as a legal and political entity on is own. This is the reason some elements of the Scottish legal system are distinct to this part of the world. Additionally, this is the reason why Scotland is allowed to posses its own maritime system. On the other hand, there are certain things that Scotland as a state cannot institute. First of all, the Act of Union requires that the United Kingdom Parliament be the main body that legislates for the constituent countries. Additionally, the constitution also stipulates that only ministers from the UK parliament have the right to hold executive powers. In other words, the constitution stipulates that Scotland should operate under territorial rather than state-wide powers. The Act of Union is instrumental in spelling out the accountability of parliament to its people in the entire UK region. It also specifies how the Cabinet, Prime ministers and junior cabinet are to be structured. 2 In the legal system, the Act of Union allows Scottish courts to operate somewhat independently; however, it specifies that appeals must be directed to the Privy Council, the House of Lords or the UK Supreme court. It can therefore be said that the Act of Union acts as a check on the Scottish judiciary system. Through these territorial mechanisms, the Scottish legal system is kept under check because they are held accountable to these regional systems. If the Act of Union were to be disregarded, then chances are that some cases or issues that have been subject to appeal in the UK judicial system would be left unguarded and this may impede certain rights of the Scottish people. As the country is currently, the Act of Union has ensured that the Scottish judiciary is highly accountable and has thus improved its performance. The UK Parliament has been granted the ability to scrutinise the goings on in the government and the country at large. If the Act of Union were to be eliminated, then this function may be undermined. Scotland is in a position where it would require intense restructuring and revision in order to be able to carry out scrutiny of its government through an independent Parliament. The Act of Union is also relevant in terms of describing some of the rights and duties of employees or companies that operate within other borders within the United Kingdom. This constitution clearly states that the UK government is the one with the powers to scrutinise or enhance accountability within corporate bodies operating in the UK. Consequently, the Act of Union is important in preserving these rights. It specifies issues such as terms and conditions of employment, pay or compensation,